3.1. Description of a design
VAZ-2106 engine: 1 - pulley of a bent shaft; 2 - belt of the drive of the pump of cooling liquid: 3 - forward epiploon of a bent shaft; 4 - camshaft drive chain; 5 - plate of a spring: 6 - the directing plug; 7 - valve; 8 - internal spring; 9 - external spring; 10 - lever spring: 11 - adjusting bolt; 12 - valve drive lever; 13 - camshaft; 14 - cover of a maslozalivny mouth; 15 - cover of a head of the block of cylinders; 16 - spark plug; 17 - head of the block of cylinders; 18 - flywheel; 19 - back epiploon of a bent shaft; 20 - oil pressure sensor; 21 - piston; 22 - index of level of oil; 23 - masloslivny stopper; 24 - rod; 25 - case pallet; 26 - roller of the drive of auxiliary units; 27 - bent shaft
Description of a design
The engine — petrol, four-cycle, four-cylinder, eight-valve, line, with the top arrangement of the camshaft. A power supply system - carburetor. Operating procedure of cylinders: 1 — 3 — 4 — 2, counting - from a pulley of a bent shaft.
The engine with the transmission and coupling forms the power unit — the uniform block fixed in a motor compartment on three elastic rezinometadlichesky support.
On the right on the engine (on the car course) are located: an inlet pipe and a final collector, the generator, the thermostat, a starter (on a coupling case), the carburetor and the case of the air filter. At the left are located: distributor of ignition, candle and wire of high voltage, index of level of oil, oil filter, fuel pump, sensors of temperature of cooling liquid and pressure of oil. In front: drive of the pump of cooling liquid and generator (maple belt).
The block of cylinders is cast from the special low-alloyed cast iron, cylinders are chiseled directly in the block. Nominal diameter — 79,0 mm, at repair it can be increased by 0,4 or 0,8 mm. The class of the cylinder is marked by Latin letters on the lower plane of the block according to diameter of the cylinder in mm: And — 79,00 — 79,00, In - 79,01-79,02, With - 79,02-79,03, D - 79,03-79,04, E - 79,04-79,05. The most admissible wear of the cylinder of 0,15 mm on diameter.
In the lower part of the block of cylinders 5 support (beds) of radical bearings with removable covers which fasten to the block special bolts are located. Openings in the block of cylinders are processed for bearings at the established covers. therefore covers of a nevzaimozamennema and for difference are marked by risks on an external surface (see fig. 4 on page 53). In a back support there are pro-points for installation of the persistent half rings interfering axial movement of a bent shaft. In front the steel-aluminum half ring (white color), and behind — ceramic-metal is established (yellow). At the same time flutes on them have to be turned to a bent shaft. Half rings are delivered the nominal and increased by 0,127 mm sizes. If the axial gap (side play) of a bent shaft exceeds the limit of 0,06 — 0,26 mm, then replace one or both half rings (the most admissible gap in operation — 0,35 mm).
Inserts of radical and conrod bearings — thin-walled steel-aluminum. The top inserts of radical bearings (installed in the block of cylinders) 1, 2, 4 and 5 support — with a flute on an internal surface. The lower inserts of radical bearings and the top insert of the third support - without flute, as well as inserts of conrod bearings. Repair inserts are issued under the necks of a bent shaft reduced by 0,25, 0,5, 0,75 and 1,00 mm. The nominal settlement diametrical gap between necks of a bent shaft and vklalyshama of bearings has to make for radical bearings - 0,050 — 0,095 mm, for conrod - 0,036 — 0,086 mm, the most admissible gap between necks and inserts - 0.15 mm and 0,1 mm respectively.
The bent shaft - from high-strength cast iron, has 5 radical necks and 4 conrod. The shaft is supplied with four counterbalances cast at the same time with shaft. For supply of oil from radical necks to conrod in it the channels closed by the pressed and fullered caps are drilled. These channels serve also for purification of oil: under the influence of centrifugal force the firm particles and pitches which passed through the filter are rejected to caps. Therefore at repair and balancing of WADA it is necessary to clear channels of the accumulated deposits. Caps cannot be reused — they are replaced new.
On the forward end (sock) of a bent shaft on a segment spline the asterisk of the drive of the gas-distributing mechanism and a pulley of the drive of the generator and pump of cooling liquid are established. The pulley is clamped between a nut on the forward end of a shaft and an asterisk. On its surface the forward epiploon of a bent shaft established in the cover of the drive of the camshaft cast from aluminum alloy works. The back epiploon is pressed in a cover (also ochlity of aluminum alloy) which fastens to a back end face of the block of cylinders. The epiploon works on a surface of a flange of a bent shaft.
To a flange of a bent shaft six ñàìîêîíòðÿùèìèñÿ bolts through the general washer the flywheel fastens. It is cast from cast iron and has a napressovanny steel gear wreath for launch of the engine a starter. The flywheel is established so that the cone-shaped hole about its wreath was opposite to a conrod neck of the 4th cylinder. The flywheel is aligned by the forward bearing of the leading shaft of the transmission pressed in a nest in a back end face of a bent shaft.
Rods — steel, double-T section, are processed together with covers. That at assembly not to mix a cover, on them, as well as on rods number of the cylinder is branded (it has to be on one side of a rod and covers). In openings of the lower head of a rod special bolts are pressed; when dismantling they cannot be beaten out from a head.
The piston finger — steel, tubular section, freely rotates in lugs of the piston and is pressed in a rod head. On outer diameter distinguish three classes of fingers (through 0,004 mm) which are marked by paint: 1 — the blue (thinnest), 2 — green, 3 — red.
The piston - from aluminum alloy. The skirt of the piston has irregular shape: in longitudinal section it conic, and in cross - oval. In the top part of the piston three flutes under piston rings are pierced. The opening under a piston finger is displaced on 2 mm from the diametrical plane of the piston therefore at installation of the piston it is necessary to be guided on the tag "Ï" at a piston lug end face: it has to be directed towards a pulley of a bent shaft.
On the outer diameter (it is measured in the plane, a perpendicular axis of a piston finger, at distance of 52,4 mm from the piston bottom) pistons, as well as cylinders, are subdivided into 5 classes (marking by a letter on the bottom). Diameter of the piston in mm (for the nominal size): And - 78.940-78,930. In - 78,950-78,940, With - 78,960-78.950, D - 78,970-78,960, E — 78,980-78,970. In spare parts pistons of classes A, C and E (nominal and the repair sizes) are delivered that it is quite enough for selection of the piston to the cylinder: a settlement diametrical gap between them - 0,060-0,080 mm, and the most admissible gap at wear — 0,15 mm. At the same time it is not recommended to install the new piston in the worn-out cylinder without its boring: the pro-point under the top piston ring in the new piston can be slightly higher, than in old, and the ring can break about the "step" which is formed in the top part of the cylinder at its wear. On diameter of an opening (in mm) under a piston finger pistons are subdivided into 3 classes: 1 - 21,974-21,970; 2 - 21,978-21.974; 3 - 21,982-21,978. Number of a class is also beaten out on the piston bottom. The finger and the piston have to be one class. When replacing select details: oiled engine Paley has to enter and an opening in the piston from effort of a thumb of a hand and not to drop out of it under own rice.
Install pistons of one weight group which should not differ from each other more than on 5 g in the engine.
Piston rings are located in piston flutes. The top two rings — compression. They interfere with break of gases in a case of the engine and promote heat removal from the piston to the cylinder. The lower ring — oil scraper. The oil collected from cylinder walls is brought to openings in lugs of the piston and serves for lubricant of a piston finger.
The gap on height between piston rings and flutes on the piston is measured by a set of probes. Nominal gap: for the top compression ring — 0,045 — 0,077 mm, for lower — 0,025 — 0.057 mm, for oil scraper - 0,020 — 0.052 mm. Maximum permissible gaps at wear — 0.15 mm. The gap in the lock of rings is measured, having inserted rings into special caliber or into the cylinder of the engine and having leveled them the piston bottom. The gap and the lock ëëÿ all rings has to make 0,250-0,400 mm.
Head of the block of cylinders — from aluminum alloy, the general for all four cylinders. It is aligned on the block of cylinders by two plugs and fastens 11 bolts. If length of a core of the bolt which is turned out when dismantling the engine exceeds 120 mm, then it should be replaced new. Between the block and a head nonshrinking is established threw ëîàðì and rovanny laying. Its Poe-gambling use is not allowed.
The aluminum case of bearings of the camshaft is fixed in the top part of a head of cylinders on nine hairpins. It is aligned on two plugs which are put on extreme hairpins.
The camshaft — cast, pig-iron, five-basic, with the bleached cams; it is brought into rotation by a two-row chain from an asterisk of a bent shaft. Axial movement is limited to a persistent flange, the entering N a pro-point of a forward basic neck of a shaft. For the correct installation of a distributive cash rather cranked on asterisks there are tags. At the same time the tag on a pulley of a bent shaft has to coincide with a tag on a camshaft drive cover, and a tag on a camshaft asterisk — with a ledge on the case of bearings. The asterisk of the camshaft is established only in one situation and drags on a bolt with the basic and fixing washers. The short mustache of the last enters an opening in an asterisk, and a side part is unbent on a nut side.
Saddles and the directing plugs of valves — pig-iron, are pressed in a head of cylinders. In spare parts repair plugs with the outer diameter increased by 0,2 mm are delivered. Openings in plugs are finally processed by development after a press fitting. Diameter of an opening of plugs of inlet valves — 8,022 — 8,040 mm, final — 8,029-8,047 mm. On the internal surface of plugs flutes for lubricant are cut: at plugs of inlet valves — at all length, at final — to a half of length of an opening. From above maslootrazhatelny caps (epiploons of valves) from oilproof rubber with a brasletny steel spring are put on plugs.
Valves - steel; final — with a head from heat resisting steel with the built-up facet. They are rowed, obliquely to the plane in which axes of cylinders are located. Diameter of a plate of the inlet valve is more (37 mm), than final (31,5 mm). Valves are given from camshaft cams via levers ("rockers"). One end the lever leans on a spherical head of an adjusting bolt, and another influences a valve core end face. Levers are drawn in to heads of bolts by the springs entering pro-points on heads of levers. The valve is closed under the influence of two springs with an opposite navivka established coaxially (coaxially). The lower ends they lean on basic washers, and top - on a plate which is fixed by two conical crackers entering a pro-point on the end of a core of the valve. The gap in the valve drive (0,15 mm) is regulated by a vvorachivaniye or a reversing of an adjusting bolt which after the end of adjustment is stopped by a lock-nut.
For reduction of fluctuations of a chain of the gas-distributing mechanism on its left branch between an asterisk of the roller of the drive of the oil pump and an asterisk of the camshaft on two bolts the plastic uspokoitel is established. For prevention of falling of a chain at removal of an asterisk of the camshaft to the right of an asterisk of a bent shaft in the block of cylinders will screw a restrictive finger in an engine case. The right branch of a chain stretches the semi-automatic spring natyazhitel established on two hairpins in a head of the block of cylinders. For a tension of a chain weaken the cap-type nut of a natya-zhltel and turn a bent shaft of the engine. At the same time the plunger of a natyazhitel under the influence of a spring rests against a rubber-metal boot, pulling a chain. After adjustment the nut is tightened. Breakthroughs and small fluctuations of a chain during the work are damped at the expense of the plunger device of the natyazhitel providing an utaplivaniye of its shaft under load of 0,2 — 0,5 mm. The boot of a natyazhitel turns on the axis screwed in the block of cylinders.
The chain of the gas-distributing mechanism sets in motion and the roller of the drive of auxiliary units. Fastening of its asterisk is similar to fastening of an asterisk of the camshaft. The sizes of asterisks also coincide. The roller rotates in plugs in the block of cylinders, refrains from axial movements by the persistent flange entering a pro-point on his forward neck. For the drive of the fuel pump on the roller the clown is executed. The gear wreath of the roller enters N gearing with the gear wheel of the drive of the oil pump and distributor of ignition installed vertically in the plug in a pro-point of the block of cylinders. In a gear wheel the longitudinal opening with vents which shlinevy the end of the roller of the oil pump from below enters, and from above - shlitsevy the end of the roller of the distributor of ignition is executed.
The oil pump — gear, one-stage, with the reducing valve; it is mounted in the case attached to the lower part of the block of cylinders. The reception branch pipe is cast with the lower part of the case at the same time and closed by a stamped perforated grid ëëÿ rough purification of oil of mechanical impurity. Nominal gaps: between teeths of gear wheels — 0,15 mm, between gear wheels (on outer diameter) and walls of a pump housing of-0,11 — 0,18 mm, between end faces of gear wheels and the plane of the case of 0.056 — 0,135 mm: limit gaps respectively — 0.25 mm. 0.25 mm and 0,20 mm (are measured by a set of probes). Nominal gaps between the conducted gear wheel and its axis-0.017 — 0,057 mm. between shaft of the pump and an opening in the case of 0,016 — 0,055 mm: maximum permissible gaps — 0,10 mm (are defined by a measurement of details).
Engine lubricant — combined: under pressure radical and conrod bearings, couples "a support — a camshaft neck", bearings (plugs) of the roller of the drive of auxiliary units and a gear wheel of the drive of the oil pump are greased; spraying oil moves on walls of cylinders (further to piston rings and fingers), to couple "a camshaft cam — the lever" and to cores of valves. An oil filter — full-line, non-demountable, with perepuskny and antidrainage valves.
The system of ventilation of a case - closed compulsory, with a suction of gases through an oil separator.
Power supply systems, coolings, production of the fulfilled gases and ignition are described in appropriate sections.